UNESCO IHP/Division of Water Sciences stated that
a worldwide network of demonstration sites is necessary and relatively required to provide evidence of successful implementation of ecohydrology solutions.
In order to meet the challenge, APCE established and conducted a research activity concerning the ecohydrology demonstration site (demosite) entitled Advanced Development
of Ecohydrology Demonstration Site in the Saguling Reservoir, the Upper Citarum River basin, Indonesia, especially related to Improvements of Water Quantity and Quality
using Ecohydrological Approach and Local Community-based Participation. The Saguling site has been chosen as a study site since the first Advanced Training Workshop in 2001 and has been included in the UNESCO Catalogue of Ecohydrology Demosites. Aside from these
facts, The Citarum River basin and Saguling Reservoir hold strategic functions at the national scale (Presidential Decision of the Republic of Indonesia No.12/2012).
The specific objectives of advanced development of the ecohydrology demosite designed are as follows:
- To demonstrate (showcase) and evaluate the application of the ecohydrology ap-proach to solve issues surrounding water, environment and people;
- To setup an integrative program of activities for reducing point source and diffuse pollutions as well as concept for controlling surface runoff and soil erosion by means of ecohydrology methods,
- To create an advanced demonstration site that represent the possibilities of introducing the evaluated ecohydrology-based control measures in other areas such as at the different internal locations of the Saguling Reservoir catchments and the Upper Citarum River basin;
COMPONENTS OF ECOHYDROLOGY APPROACH
- Online Monitoring System for Meteorology and Stream flows, The purpose of this work was to develop online monitoring system of river water parameters and weather elements in order to attempt ecohydrology simulation model development and monitoring of environmental conditions at the Cibitung River catchment
- Ecohidrology Modelling System,The proposed physically-based distributed ecohydrological model consists of two modules, they are hydrological and ecological components. In the final report, the hydrological model called as rainfall-sediment-runoff model is reported has been successfully developed. For preliminary model application, the developed physically-based distributed rainfall-sediment-runoff model was applied at the whole area of the upper Citarum River basin with the Saguling Reservoir as the outlet point
- Design and Setup of Phytotechnology Application,The adopted methods for the phytotechnology application are as follows - The application of phytotechnology in ecohydrology demosite is focused on water quality rehabilitation especially due to domestic waste, paddy field, home industry within the area of the proposed demonstration site and aquatic plants community has been used as the growth media, particularly from the group of floating plants and use them to treat polluted water (phytoremediation) before channeling back to the reservoir/river water system.
- Continuation of the tasks developed in the first phase of the demosite development Some of them are as follows:a. Increasing the number of sensors of the monitoring stations that have been operated in the midle and upper areas of the demosite location,b. Further development and application of the physically-based distributed rainfall-sediment-runoff model, c. Evaluate the phytoremediation capacity and its performance by means of the water quality condition and the most effective floating plants. Water quality monitoring (e.g., pH, DO, conductivity, TSS, TN, and TP) at several sampling spot in the collecting ponds, phytoremediation ponds, and buffer ponds are going to be considered.
The Cibitung River Catchment, one of tributaries in the Upper Citarum River basin with the Saguling Reservoir as the outlet point (Figures 1 & 2),
was decided as demosite location for the application of ecohydrology-based best management practices at the catchment scale.
Figure 1. Citarum River basin and the Saguling Reservoir location (Source: Map of Rupabumi Indonesia, 1:25,000, of BIG).
Figure 2. The whole catchment area of the ecohydrology demonstration site, Cibitung River catchment (Source: Map of Rupabumi Indonesia, 1:25,000, of BIG).
The selected location is suitable area for ecohydrology demosite and meets the following criteria:
- Represents the regional problem in water resource management;
- Watershed area with suitable availability of environmental data, or operationally easy to carry out direct data measurement
- Suitable landscape for pond or wetland construction for demosite purpose, including all the supporting requirements
- Appropriate accessibility to facilitate the mobility of tools and materials for operational and maintenance, as well as to accommodate visit of stakeholders